Northern Sun/Southern Moon
Europe's Reinvention of Jazz

by
Mike Heffley
(Yale University Press; New Haven and London)

Footnotes

1) "Speculative musicology"--the study of the occult as well as the psychological and social principles music mirrors--was pioneered by the German Marius Schneider (see Godwin, 1989) and borne along by one of my primary German sources here, Joachim-Ernst Berendt (1983/87). See especially the 3-CD set Voices (1990) and its booklet, his presentation of choirs from around the world; his liner notes for the CD Percussion Summit (Moers Music [1984]); and Der Welt is Klang (The World is Sound [1987]), his exploration of mystical and occult-traditional views of music.

2) Since the current usage of "world music" began to emerge in the literature in the 1960s (e.g., my own Wesleyan University's World Music Program, one of the first and best such in the world), the nuance in English has been oriented toward "the diverse musics of the world." The German Weltmusik suggests more the idea of a synthesis between them that magnifies their common universals. It has also been much discussed (Feld, Erlmann, Jameson) as a global-industrial marketing ploy in the "liberal" (per Rempel) tradition of superficial exoticism. Pfleiderer (1998) mentions Stockhausen and Schnebel for their respective additions of the utopic to the rubric, an angle obviously pertaining here.

3) Levi-Strauss never did work with the Dogons. Berendt may be referring to a study by someone else--probably Marcel Griaule--for which Levi-Strauss wrote an introduction.

4) See Belic (2000) and Richie (2000). The scene showcasing the way the Tuvans lived collectively on their shared land, in the modern context of their motorcycles and housing, was a startling glimpse of what America might be like had it developed modernity in the context of native cultures here. See Staples (2003) for an informative complement to Black Indians, one that is still a shock from the unknown to most white Americans.

5) See Erenberg (230) for a more general take on the boppers as high artists disdaining "jazz" as the low entertainment of classism.

6) Namtchlyak has, since those words, expanded into the World Music/New Age market, with her CD Tearing Down Borders (Musicworks CD68, 1997).

7) The reviewer was Howard Reich ("Master of Invention," Chicago Tribune/Metro Chicago 11/20/95). We can add his immediate perception of Baroque formalism in free improvisations far beyond the pitch pale of Bach to our corroborations of German free jazz's music-historical roots.

8) Created by war refugees, it is depicted dramatically in Rembetiko: The Birth of Greek Blues (director Costa Ferris, 1983, New York Film Annex), winner of Filmfest Berlin's 1984 Silver Bear Award.

9) Keeley (1999) offers Greek studies a timely look at their body of work, conveying its update of the spirit of ancient Greek myth as well as its move from the shadow of same--a view that resonates with mine of Kowald's work.

10) See Heidegger's musings on Greece (in Heidegger [1975]), and Spiegelberg's (1994: 336-424) musings on those.

11) See "For the Birds," an interview with Cage in Kraus and Lotringer (2001: 161-71) that captures his East-born philosophy as a way of engaging the Holy without resorting to Religion (see also Retallack [1996] and Revill [1991]). Cage's proposition that "one plus one equals one" stands against all the ancient Greek parsing of logic, as also against Western music-making as an engagement with relationships between hierarchical divisions of that "one." Cage's philosophy also casts him more into the visual than the literary sort of composer, to recall categories discussed above: into time's moment more than its flow. Kowald is admitting here to a Western penchant for narrative (Dramaturgie, musicalité, as we've seen them both) that the Emanzipators have not been able to shake away even when they've tried.